An electric battery is a device consisting of one or more electrochemical cells that convert stored chemical energy into electrical energy. Each cell contains a positive terminal, or cathode, and a negative terminal, or anode. Electrolytes allow ions to move between the electrodes and terminals, which allows current to flow out of the battery to perform work.
Primary (single-use or “disposable”) batteries are used once and discarded; the electrode materials are irreversibly changed during discharge. Common examples are the alkaline battery used for flashlights and a multitude of portable devices. Secondary (rechargeable batteries) can be discharged and recharged multiple times; the original composition of the electrodes can be restored by reverse current. Examples include the lead-acid batteries used in vehicles and lithium ion batteries used for portable electronics. Batteries come in many shapes and sizes, from miniature cells used to power hearing aids and wristwatches to battery banks the size of rooms that provide standby power for telephone exchanges and computer data centers.
According to a 2005 estimate, the worldwide battery industry generates US$48 billion in sales each year, with 6% annual growth.
Batteries have much lower specific energy (energy per unit mass) than common fuels such as gasoline. This is somewhat mitigated by the fact that batteries deliver their energy as electricity (which can be converted efficiently to mechanical work), whereas using fuels in engines entails a low efficiency of conversion to work.
These batteries are commonly named 9-volt, and also colloquially named PP3, Radio battery, Square battery, and Japan “006P”.
They all have a rectangular shape; the dimensions are height 48.5 mm, length 26.5 mm, width 17.5 mm (or 1.9″x1.0″x0.68″). Both terminals are at one end and their centers are 1/2 inch (12.7 mm) apart.
Inside an alkaline or carbon-zinc 9-volt battery there are six cells, either cylindrical or flat type, connected in series. Some brands use welded tabs internally to attach to the cells, others press foil strips against the ends of the cells.
Rechargeable nickel–cadmium (NiCd) and Nickel-metal hydride (NiMH) batteries have between six and eight 1.2 volt cells. Lithium ion versions typically use two cells (3.7V nominal each). Lithium polymer and low self-discharge NiMH versions can also be found.