A person can technically not belong to any country and thus considered

A person can technically not belong to any country

A person can technically not belong to any country and thus considered statelessness

Airports Some cases of statelessness have occurred in airports, due to their status as ports of entry. A famous case was of Mehran Karimi Nasseri, an expelled Iranian who lived in the Charles de Gaulle Airport in France for approximately eighteen years after being denied entry to the country, but allowed to stay in the airport. There are two films about his story, Tombés du ciel and The Terminal. Another case is Zahra Kamalfar, of Iran, who lived in the Sheremetyevo International Airport for many months before getting refugee status in Canada. Brunei There is a large number of stateless permanent residents in Brunei. Most of these residents have lived on Brunei soil for generations, but Brunei nationality is determined by applying the policy of jus sanguinis; the right to hold the nationality is only by blood ties. However, the government of Brunei has made obtaining citizenship possible, albeit difficult, for stateless people who inhabited Brunei for many generations. The requirements to attain Brunei citizenship include passing rigorous tests in Malay culture, customs and language.Stateless permanent residents of Brunei are given an International Certificate of Identity, which allows them to travel overseas. The majority of Brunei’s Chinese and Indians are permanent residents. A holder of an International Certificate of Identity can enter Germany and Hungary visa-free for a maximum of 90 days within a 180 day period. In the case of Germany, in theory, in order to benefit from the visa exemption, the ICI must be issued under the terms of the 1954 Convention Relating to the Status of Stateless Persons and contain an authorisation to return to Brunei which has a sufficiently long period of validity. However, because Brunei is not a signatory to the 1954 Convention Relating to the Status of Stateless Persons, holders of an ICI do not qualify for the visa exemption to Germany. Holders of an ICI can still benefit from the visa exemption to Hungary, since the Hungarian Government does not require the ICI to be issued under the terms of the 1954 Convention Relating to the Status of Stateless Persons.Brunei is a signatory to the 1959 Declaration of the Rights of the Child in which Principle 3 states:”The child shall be entitled from his birth to a name and a nationality.”However, Brunei does not currently follow the guidelines of the said Convention. There is a recent announcement from the Sultan of Brunei regarding plans to expedite the process of citizenship process for Stateless/Permanent residence status in Brunei to sit for citizenship exams. Burma Main article: Rohingya peopleCanada Bill C-37 came into effect on 17 April 2009 and changed the rules for foreign-born Canadian citizenship. Individuals born outside Canada can now become Canadian citizens by descent only if at least one of their parents was either a native-born citizen or a foreign-born but naturalized citizen of Canada. The new law limits citizenship by descent to only one generation born outside Canada. All individuals born outside Canada but within one generation of the native-born or naturalized citizen parent are automatically recognized as Canadian citizens. The second generation born abroad, however, are not citizens of Canada at birth. Such individuals might even be stateless if they have no claim to any other citizenship.Since the passage of Bill C-37, this situation has already occurred at least twice. In one situation, Rachel Chandler was born in China to a father who is a Canadian citizen born in Libya and a mother who is a Chinese citizen. Due to the nationality laws of Canada and China, she was not eligible for citizenship of either country and was apparently born stateless. However, because Rachel Chandler’s paternal grandfather was born in Ireland, she was entitled to Irish citizenship, and now holds an Irish passport. Chloé Goldring was born in Belgium, to a Canadian father born in Bermuda and an Algerian mother. Due to the nationality laws of Belgium, Canada and Algeria, she was not eligible for citizenship of any of those countries and was born stateless. Chloé Goldring is now a Canadian citizen. Under Bill C-37, the term “native-born” is construed strictly—children born outside of Canada to Canadian government employees working there, including diplomats and Canadian Forces personnel, are considered to be foreign-born. Ironically, the bill was intended to resolve the status of so-called “Lost Canadians”—people who considered themselves Canadians, with undeniable connections to the country, but had either lost or never been granted citizenship due to the vagaries of the country’s previous nationality law.Germany Foreign nationals wishing to apply for German nationality are obliged to renounce any other nationality they may hold. Exceptions are made for citizens of some European Union member states, which Germany has accordant agreements with. Furthermore, the Jus sanguinis can be applied to some foreigners wishing to gain German citizenship. The current rules regarding plural citizenship has come under criticism, especially from the Turkish community in Germany, because of its unequal treatment of foreign citizens wishing to gain German citizenship. After the renunciation of the existing citizenship, a person encounters second verification of his/her citizenship case. Successful verification of such is followed by an invitation to the ceremony, where he is given a Naturalisation Certificate (Einbürgerungsurkunde). Before it is given and after the renunciation of the nationality/nationalities, a person is officially stateless.India and Pakistan As of 2012, India and Pakistan were holding several hundred prisoners of each other’s country for minor violations like trespass or visa overstay, often with accusations of espionage attached. Some of these include cases where Pakistan and India both deny citizenship to these people, leaving them stateless. The BBC reported in 2012 on one such case of Mohammed Idrees, a man who lived in Pakistan and was held under Indian police control for approximately 13 years for overstaying his 15 day visa by 2–3 days after seeing his ill parents in 1999. Much of the 13 years was spent in prison waiting for a hearing, and more time was spent homeless or living with generous families. Both states denied him citizenship. The BBC linked these problems to the political atmosphere caused by the Kashmir conflict. The Indian People’s Union for Civil Liberties told the BBC it had worked on hundreds of cases with similar features, calling his individual case a “violation of all human rights, national and international laws, everybody has a right to a nation”. The Indian Human Rights Law Network told the BBC that the cause was “officials in the home department”, and slow courts, and called the case a “miscarriage of justice, a shocking case”. Kuwait Bedoun means “without” in Arabic, indicating that this group, between 90,000 and 180,000, has no nationality. Not considered as nationals by Kuwait or any other state, bedoun are stateless. While Kuwaiti nationals enjoy a large number benefits and subsidies, stateless people in this small but very wealthy country live in slum-like settlements on the outskirts of its cities, where they suffer numerous human rights violations.Many of them failed to acquire nationality at independence. Some did not qualify under the law: they were not able to show residential ties to Kuwait prior to 1920. Others, more commonly, did not quite appreciate the importance of having a nationality and failed to register as citizens.In the mid-1980s, the situation for bedoun began to deteriorate rapidly. The Nationality Act was amended several times between 1960 and 1985, making access to nationality increasingly difficult. For the first time, in 1986, the government began to apply the Alien Residence Act to bedoun, effectively stripping them of most of the rights they had enjoyed since independence and reclassifying them as “illegal residents.” Basic rights such as issuance of key documents, including birth, marriage and death certificates, were denied, which in turn had a whole range of negative consequences. Pilgrimage to Mecca, the Hajj, also became difficult for bedoun. Most were allowed to leave Kuwait only if they agreed not to return. To this day, religious travel still poses a major problem to many bedoun, and bribes are becoming lucrative opportunities for border officials and travel companies.By the time of the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait on August 2, 1990, bedoun in Kuwait were increasingly living in poverty. They had been dismissed from their jobs in large numbers, their children were no longer allowed to attend public schools, and health care had become more or less inaccessible.After Kuwait was liberated, the bedoun still employed in the public sector were dismissed retroactively from the date of the invasion. The number of deportation orders also increased significantly, but many were not carried out since there was no country to which the bedoun could be deported. Most deportation orders were “administrative orders” so no access to judicial review was available.In 2000, Act 22, an amendment to the Nationality Act, theoretically provided a greater opportunity for bedoun to naturalize, but the conditions were so strict that few qualified. Also, an annual cap on naturalizations was introduced even if Kuwait has rarely, if ever, used the full quota.In 2003, allegedly some 5,500 bedoun were permitted to apply for nationality and a smaller number, some 1,600, were naturalized. Then, the process stagnated and did not turn into the kind of reform many had hoped for. A few years later, in 2006, the National Assembly created a committee to deal with thebidoon issue, but for the most part it was ineffective. Another government body was set up in 2011 to deal with the issue, but it too has so far only achieved limited progress.In 2011, the first bedoun demonstrations for nationality rights took place on February 18. Afraid of the protest spiraling out of control the government quickly promised some reforms, including access to a few basic rights for bedoun. On March 11, 2011, bedoun took to the streets again. The government responded with force, advancing with armored vehicles and riot police, employing tear gas and flares to break up crowds. It was reported that 140 bedoun were detained without charge. Palestine See also: History of Palestinian nationalityEven though Palestinians living in the West Bank and the Gaza Strip were issued a Palestinian passport according to the Oslo Accords, many countries (such as Germany) still do not recognize their citizenship.As a matter of international law, only states can have nationals and the nationality status of many Palestinians therefore depends on whether or not Palestine is a state: some countries recognize Palestinian statehood, but others do not.After Israel annexed East Jerusalem, Palestinians living there received, along with Israeli permanent residency status, the right to apply for automatic citizenship. Shortly after the offer was made in 1967, it was rejected by Arab leaders. Almost all Jerusalemite Palestinians have shied away from citizenship for ideological reasons. Between 1967 and 2007 only 12,000 of these 250,000 Palestinians applied for Israeli citizenship. Those who do not are therefore generally stateless.Palestinians arguably comprise the largest stateless population in the world. Abbas Shiblak estimates that over half of the Palestinian people in the world are stateless. Puerto Rico Main article: Juan Mari BrásIn 1994, Juan Mari Brás, a Puerto Rican lawyer and political historian, renounced his US citizenship before a consular agent in the US Embassy of Venezuela. In December 1995, his denaturalization was confirmed by the US Department of State: Mari Bras was no longer a US citizen. That same month, he requested that the Puerto Rican State Department furnish him with proof of his Puerto Rican citizenship. The request involved more than just a bureaucratic formality, therefore testing the self-determination of Puerto Rico by becoming the first Puerto Rican citizen that was not also an American citizen. Mari Brás claimed that as a Puerto Rican national born and raised in Puerto Rico, he was clearly a Puerto Rican citizen and therefore had every right to continue to reside, work and, most importantly, vote in Puerto Rico. The State Department responded promptly, claiming that Puerto Rican citizenship does not exist independent of American citizenship, and in 1998 rescinded their recognition of his renunciation of citizenship. The State Department’s response to Mari Brás stated that Puerto Rican citizenship currently exists only as an equivalent to residency: Puerto Rican citizens are US citizens who reside in Puerto Rico. The Secretary of State[clarification needed] agreed, claiming that after a year of residence on the island, any US citizen can gain Puerto Rican citizenship. On October 25, 2006, he became the first person to receive a Puerto Rican citizenship certificate from the Puerto Rico State Department.[clarification needed]United Kingdom [edit]See also: Document of IdentityCases of statelessness have arisen due to different classes in British nationality law which led to situations where people were considered British subjects but not nationals, or where people held a British passport without right of abode in the United Kingdom. People who have no other citizenship in any other country, and simultaneously lacked a right to reside in the United Kingdom are possibly stateless.[citation needed] Examples of this include so-called British Protected Persons, who are not considered British nationals. People in Hong Kong who did not acquire nationality in the People’s Republic of China after the turnover in 1997 acquired British National (Overseas) status, which is less than full citizenship but affords the right of abode in Hong Kong. British nationals (irrespective of the class of nationality) who reside abroad but do not enjoy protection by the British government are de facto stateless.Many situations where people were at risk of statelessness due to the different classes of British nationality were resolved after 30 April 2003, when the Nationality, Immigration and Asylum Act 2002 came into force. As a result of this Act, the United Kingdom gave most nationals of residual British nationalities, without any other citizenship the right to register as full British citizens. However, cases still exist where people have not been able or willing to register as citizens.[specify]United States The United States, which is not a signatory to the 1954 Convention on the Status of Stateless Persons nor the 1961 Convention on the Reduction of Statelessness, is one of a small number of countries which will allow its citizens to renounce their citizenship even if they do not hold any other. The Foreign Affairs Manual instructs State Department employees to make it clear to Americans who will become stateless after renunciation that they may face extreme difficulties (including deportation back to the United States) following their renunciation, but instructs employees to afford such persons of their right to give up citizenship. Former Americans who have voluntarily made themselves stateless as a form of political protest include Garry Davis, Thomas Jolley, Joel Slater, and most recently Mike Gogulski

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